生活百科 別再以為流感只是嚴重感冒

別再以為流感只是嚴重感冒

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【新三才綜合報道】大多數的人若有喉嚨痛、咳嗽、流鼻水等癥狀,第一個反應就是:「我感冒了!」

事實卻不見得那麼單純。雖然這些癥狀都顯示,呼吸道受到病毒或細菌侵襲,但是因為致病的種類不同,預防和治療的方法也有差別。

一般人所稱的感冒,其實分為「普通感冒」和「流行性感冒」兩大類。引起普通感冒的病毒超過兩百種,因此每人每年平均會得2~4次。最初的癥狀是喉嚨痛、打噴嚏,兩三天後開始流鼻水、咳嗽。

流行性感冒雖然也是病毒引起的,但是來勢就比較兇猛了。典型的癥狀是突然畏寒、發高燒超過39度,持續2~3天,加上頭痛欲裂、全身酸痛無力,大多只能卧床休息。

此外流行性感冒病毒非常多變,即使健康成人的免疫系統,也無法快速辨認並且反擊,常有「一人得病、全家中獎」的情形。

更嚴重的是,對於超過65歲的老人或慢性疾病患者,因為身體天然防禦的能力較弱,得了流行性感冒更讓其他病毒、細菌有機可趁,入侵鼻竇、中耳、支氣管,甚至引起肺炎致死。

即使是健康的青壯年,也不要把感冒視為小病而掉以輕心。如果癥狀持續超過一周都不見好轉,或是出現下列癥狀,應該趕快就醫,因為很可能是受到其他感染,或是根本得的是其他呼吸道疾病,需要醫師確定診斷,做進一步治療:
(1)發高燒超過4天以上;
(2)咳嗽的很厲害,而且痰變濃或有顏色;
(3)呼吸時胸痛或覺得呼吸困難;
(4)耳朵疼痛或臉部腫起;
(5)喉嚨嚴重疼痛,從嘴巴往裡看,喉頭呈白色或黃色;
(6)出現綠色或黃色的鼻涕或臉頰、額頭部位會痛。

(新三才記者金主綜合整理)
(責任編輯:香香)

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