世界之窗 歐洲傳奇家族梅迪奇肖像畫的...

歐洲傳奇家族梅迪奇肖像畫的背後(組圖)

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【新三才編譯首發】除了短暫的缺席,從15世紀中期到18世紀中期,歐洲的梅迪奇家族(Medici)一直掌控著佛羅倫薩(Florence),從毫不起眼的織品商人,逐步成為銀行家、軍事強人和大公爵。

每當一個家族式微時,都有表兄弟介入,延續梅迪奇家族對權力的追逐。他們不斷地藉由武力、政治職位、與貴族聯婚,維繫住權勢的合法化。

梅迪奇家族先後產生4位教皇、2位法國皇后。但他們最喜歡的是對藝術和科學的贊助。梅迪奇家族保護過文藝復興時期在佛羅倫薩的天才,包括馬薩喬(Masaccio, 1401-1428)、布魯內萊斯基(Brunelleschi, 1377-1446)、多納泰羅(Donatello, 1386-1466)、安傑利科(Fra Angelico, 1395-1455)、米開朗基羅(Michelangelo, 1475-1564)、達文西(Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519)、伽利略(Galileo, 1564-1642)等人。

在瘋僧薩沃納羅拉(Girolamo Savonarola, 1452-1498)接管佛羅倫薩後,其恐怖統治只維持4年就被推翻並處死,但是梅迪奇的勢力與藝術領域的開放都出現數十年的緊縮。

然而,梅迪奇的力量仍在文藝復興晚期達到巔峰,並隨著科西莫一世大帝(Cosimo I the Great, 1519-1574)在1537年接掌托斯卡納(Tuscany)而增長,直到其1574年去世。

梅迪奇利用神聖羅馬帝國皇帝和教皇之間無休止的戰爭,來奪回自己的影響力。

在16世紀之前,肖像畫還是一種不受重視的藝術,但是梅迪奇家族用肖像畫作為宣傳工具,藉此來累積自己的勢力。

▲埃莉諾肖像 (Agnolo di Cosimo繪,1622年)

▲科西莫一世肖像 (Agnolo di Cosimo繪,約1560年)

▲紅衣女子畫像 (Agnolo di Cosimo繪,約1525-1530年)

▲雙人畫像 (Jacopo Pontormo繪,約1522-1523年)

▲魯特琴師畫像 (Francesco Salviati繪)

▲瘋僧薩沃納羅拉畫像 (Fra Bartolomeo繪)

《梅迪奇世系》

◎1434年:在義大利文藝復興時期,老科西莫(Cosimo the Elder, 1389-1464)的努力經營下,梅迪奇家族逐漸成為佛羅倫薩的權貴。

◎1492年:羅倫佐(Lorenzo the Magnificent, 1449-1492)的去世,意味著佛羅倫薩黃金時代的結束。繼任者為其臥病的兒子皮羅(Piero the Gouty, 1472-1503)。

◎1494-1498年:梅迪奇家族被流放。而薩佛納羅拉(Girolamo Savonarola, 1452-1498)的神權統治也因其本人被反叛者處死而告終。

◎1513-1527:返鄉的梅迪奇家族第二次被驅逐出境。

◎1530-1537:亞歷山德羅(Alessandro de’ Medici, 1510-1537)圍攻佛羅倫薩,成為佛羅倫薩世襲公爵的第一人,但被他遠房堂兄洛倫扎喬(Lorenzaccio)謀殺身亡。

◎1537-1574:科西莫一世(Reign of Cosimo I, “the builder”, 1537-1574)娶了埃莉諾(Eleanor of Toledo, 1522-1562),於1569年獲得大公爵(Grand Duke)的頭銜。1743年,大公爵世系以安娜瑪麗亞(Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici, 1667-1743)的死亡告終。

(作者:Lara Marlowe)

(編譯:汪水)

(文章來源:新三才編譯首發)

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