未解之謎 滅絕恐龍的小行星撞地球曾引...

滅絕恐龍的小行星撞地球曾引發超大海嘯

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【新三才首發】地球上的恐龍據信是在6,500萬年前滅絕,原因是一顆巨大的小行星撞擊了墨西哥尤卡坦半島,也就是現在被稱為Chicxulub火山口的地方。雖然人們普遍認為這顆小行星對地球氣候造成了巨大的破壞,但一項新的研究表明,這顆小行星還曾引發超過5,000英尺高的全球規模大海嘯。

該研究於12月14日在美國地球物理聯盟年會上發表,表明海嘯的影響始於墨西哥灣並迅速從那裡蔓延開來。該研究報告摘要說:「海嘯迅速蔓延到墨西哥灣,進入大西洋,並在最初24小時內通過中美洲海道進入太平洋。」「波浪反射和折射會在撞擊後48小時內產生更複雜的海嘯傳播模式。」

在美國密歇根大學研究員Molly Range所帶領的研究團隊指出,「影響不僅對全球大氣層和生物圈產生了重大影響,而且還造成如此嚴重的海嘯,以至於世界大部分地區都能感受到它的影響。」

這顆撞擊地球的小行星被認為有9英里寬,引發了全球性的海嘯,「現代歷史上從未見過這樣的海嘯。」Range在評論中說道。

小行星擊中了半島的淺水區。研究人員透過模型模擬了衝擊後10分鐘內發生的事情。此時,由於撞擊的大小和範圍,沒有水進入火山口,但不久之後,水開始衝回火山口並「可能在距離衝擊起源超過6,000公里(3,728英里)的地方擾亂了沉積物。」摘要補充道。

該論文尚未在同行評審期刊上發表,該論文於2018年12月由EOS首次報導。

Range和她的顧問意識到,沒有人對小行星的影響是否引起海嘯做過任何研究,當他們運行模型時,他們發現了這起全球事件的證據。

「我們發現,這次海嘯在整個海洋中,在每個海洋盆地中都發生。」Range在評論中說道。研究人員補充說,在初始波浪之後,其他波浪也撼動了地球。

研究人員指出,尤卡坦半島的海嘯影響比現代歷史上最大的海嘯之一——2004年12月的印度洋海嘯高出2,600倍。

(編譯:王明真)

(責任編輯:姜啟明)

(文章來源:新三才首發)

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