天朝盛事 「新三才精華回顧」【天工開...

「新三才精華回顧」【天工開物】鑄造——佛像、火炮、銅鏡

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鑄佛像。鑄仙佛之銅像,鑄模方法與朝鐘同。但鐘鼎不可由幾部分接合,而銅像則可由幾部分接合鑄造,故澆注時省力省事。但接模之法,精確度要求很高。

鑄炮。西洋紅夷炮、佛郎機等用熟銅為原料鑄造。
信炮、短提銃等用生銅、熟銅各半鑄造。
襄陽炮、盞口炮、大將軍、二將軍等炮用鐵鑄造。
(按:以上各種炮名,詳見《武備志》)

鑄銅鏡。鑄鏡用的模由草木灰及細沙作成,而鏡由銅和錫作成(不用鋅)。《考工記》亦云:“金(銅)、錫各一半的合金,是製作鑒(照面鏡)和燧(取火鏡,聚焦鏡)的材料。”鏡面反光,因鏡身附有水銀,並非銅有這種光澤。唐代開元年間(717年-741年)宮中的鏡,都以白銀與銅各半鑄成,每面鏡價值達數兩銀子,原因在此。鏡面上有像硃砂色的斑點,是其中所含金銀成分的表現。(古代鑄香爐,加金於其中。)本朝(明朝)的宣德爐,也因當時(1426-1435)某庫偶然發生火災,其中金銀與銅錫摻雜熔化在一起,下令用以鑄爐(宣德爐真品上閃現金色)。唐鏡和宣爐都是朝廷盛世之物。

原文
【天工開物】

凡鑄仙佛銅像,塑法與朝鍾同。但鍾、鼎不可接而像則數接為之,故寫時為力甚易。但接模之法,分寸最精雲。

凡鑄炮,西洋、紅夷、佛郎機等用熟銅造,信炮、短提銃等用生、熟銅兼半造,襄陽、盞口、大將軍、二將軍等用鐵造。

凡鑄鏡,模用灰沙。銅用錫和(不用倭鉛)。《考工記》亦云:“金、錫相半謂之鑒、燧之劑”。開面成光,則水銀附體而成,非銅有光明如許也。唐開元宮中鏡,盡以白銀與銅等分成,每口值銀數兩者以此故。硃砂斑點乃金銀精華發現(古爐有入金於內者)。我朝宣爐,亦緣某庫偶災,金銀雜銅錫化作一團,命以鑄爐(真者錯現金色)。唐鏡、宣爐,皆朝延盛世物也。

【注釋】

生熟銅:生銅性脆,只能用作鑄造。熟銅指可錘鍛的銅或銅合金。
倭鉛:鋅。
鑒燧之劑:鑒為平面鏡(穿衣鏡),燧為取火鏡(凹面聚光鏡),劑為合金。

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