精华回顾 新三才精华回顾:皇帝龙袍的...

新三才精华回顾:皇帝龙袍的含义(图)

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【新三才精华回顾】中国古代皇帝的服饰基本上分为三大类,即礼服、吉服和便服。龙袍是吉服的一种,服上绣纹以龙为主,故得此名。龙袍的特点是盘领、右衽、黄色。龙袍比礼服略低一等,是皇帝在普通吉庆宴会、朝见臣属时穿的服装,也是我们最常见的皇帝服饰。汉文帝刘恒穿的龙袍第一次采用黄色,这种颜色一直延用到明清。据明代的地方志集《苏州府志》卷147记载,在明代万历29年(公元1601年)宦官孙隆到苏州充当税监,督造龙袍。真正的龙袍传世不多,1957年在北京十三陵定陵发掘的出土文物中就有用缂丝制成的龙袍。

古时称帝王之位,为九五之尊。九、五两数,通常象征著高贵及神圣而不可侵犯,在皇室建筑、生活器具等方面都有所反映。清朝皇帝的龙袍,据文献记载也绣有九条龙。从传世龙袍实物来看,四条正龙往往绣在龙袍最显要的位置——前胸、后背和两肩,在前后衣襟部位各有两条行龙,这样前后望去都是五条龙,寓意九五之尊。正龙是只有皇帝才能用的龙纹——龙身盘旋,头居其中,正视前方,姿态威仪无比。这样,前后总共只有八条龙,与文字记载不符,缺一条龙。有人认为还有一条龙是皇帝本身。其实这条龙确实存在着,只是被绣在衣襟里面,一般不易看到,要掀开外面的衣襟才能看到。这样一来,每件龙袍实际为九龙,与九五之数正好相吻合。除了这九条主龙外,在龙袍的腰部、袖口、云领上也绣有龙纹,不过体态较小而已。另外,龙袍的下摆,斜向排列着许多弯曲的线条,名谓水脚。水脚之上,还有许多波浪翻滚的水浪,水浪之上,又立有山石宝物,俗称「海水江涯」,这寓意福山寿海,它除了表示绵延不断的吉祥含意之外,同时也隐含了「江山一统」和「万世升平」的寓意。

皇帝的服饰上绣有各种寓意吉祥、色彩艳丽的纹饰图案,除了龙纹,还有凤纹、富贵牡丹纹、吉祥八宝纹等等。在龙袍上的龙纹之间,多绣以五彩云纹、蝙蝠纹、十二章纹等吉祥图案。龙、凤纹向来是帝、后的象征,除了帝、后之外任何人不得使用。十二章图案是中国图纹中出现的最高统治者的专有纹饰,只应用在帝、后和少数亲王、将相的服饰上,从未在民间出现过。五彩云纹是龙袍上不可缺少的装饰图案,它既表现祥瑞之兆又起衬托作用。红色蝙蝠纹即「红蝠」,其发音与 「洪福」相同,也是龙袍上常用的装饰图案。龙袍以明黄色为主,也可用金黄、杏黄等色。

一些王公大臣的衣服上也有龙的纹样,但和皇帝用的龙是不同的。龙袍专供皇帝穿着,其他官员是不能随便穿着的,只有得到皇帝亲赐才能穿,但在穿着前必须挑去龙的一爪,以示区别。在明朝,经改制后的龙袍,称为蟒袍,为明朝官员的常服。皇帝的衣服称龙袍,臣子的衣服叫蟒袍,一字之差,天壤之别。龙和蟒的区别有很多种说法,比如:龙是五爪,而蟒却是四爪、三爪或干脆就没爪,另外,龙头上有角,而蟒却没有。这些差别虽然细微,但身份的差别大不相同。龙袍上的纹样以及所在的位置绝对不能有丝毫差错,许多纹样只限于皇帝服饰之上,这是皇权至高无上的象征。

作者:李仲荃

责任编辑:姜启明

文章来源:新三才

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