世界史话 波兰在二战期间消失的珍贵艺...

波兰在二战期间消失的珍贵艺术品(组图)

分享

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

【新三才编译首发】1939年至1945年期间在波兰领土上被没收、被盗或烧毁的艺术品达数十万件。波兰文化网站culture.pl目前先关注那些仍然有可能找到的艺品:

【图1】《狩猎之旅》(A Hunting Trip) ── 约瑟夫.勃兰特(Józef Brandt,1841-1915)绘
这位画家在慕尼黑(Munich)度过他的大部分的岁月,对后来的波兰绘画以及文学产生巨大的影响。他的画作《狩猎之旅》的保存在波兰卡托维兹(Katowice)的西里西亚博物馆(Silesian Museum),直到第二次世界大战。在德国军队入侵之后,该博物馆的藏品被运往比托姆(Bytom)的国家博物馆过程中被毁或被盗甚多。其中,本件画作的下落至今不详。

【图2】《国王斯坦尼斯瓦夫(Stanisław Augustus)巡视火灾后的华沙城堡》 ── 卡纳莱托(Canaletto)绘,约1765年
到目前为止,还没有人算过华沙的皇家城堡(Royal Castle)遭战火洗劫与重建的次数。然而,波兰最后一位国王斯坦尼斯瓦夫.波尼亚托夫斯基(Stanisław August Poniatowski)指定宫廷画家卡纳莱托(Canaletto,又名Bernardo Bellotto)记录下这个事件。他还收藏一些与波兰历史有关的画作,但在1834年被沙皇尼古拉一世(Tsar Nikolai I)下令焚毁。1939年,一些卡纳莱托的作品被转移到华沙国家博物馆,然后被带往波兰的旧都克拉科夫(Kraków)或德国,并陆续遭窃或毁于战火。

【图3】《玛利亚与孩子》(Madonna with Child) ── 克拉纳赫长老(Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1472-1553)绘,1518年品,43 x 33厘米
此画经常被称为《格沃古夫的玛利亚》(the Głogów Madonna),这是克拉纳赫经典的作品之一。画中的圣母玛利亚以自然的姿势流露着母性的温暖。1943年,波兰基于安全理由,将此画移到亨利科夫镇(Henryków),再到Lądek-Zdrój,但仍于1945年落入俄国人手中。2004年后,波兰一直努力要索回此画。据悉,在莫斯科同一博物馆中,还收藏二战期间从波兰掠夺的其他画作。

【图4】《圣安东尼的诱惑》(The Temptation of St. Anthony) ── 克拉纳赫长老(Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1472-1553),木刻版画
这个木刻描绘圣安东尼在听到圣经的寓言后,决定把材产全送给穷人,自己到沙漠中过著苦行者的生活。在苦修的过程中,圣安东尼在十字架和铃铛的帮助下赶走魔鬼。这是波兰格但斯克(Gdańs)商人暨收藏家卡布伦(Jacob Kabrun)所印赠近9,000张的版画系列之一。这些版画和素描后来成为格但斯克国家博物馆的馆藏之一。在二战期间,该系列有一部分被转移到下萨克森州(Lower Saxony)的哥达镇(Gotha),一部分留在原博物馆,后来被红军(Red Army)带回苏联(the Soviet Union)。

【图5】《一头躺着的母狮》(A Lying Lioness) ── 杜勒(Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528),画在纸上,16.2 x 27厘米
华沙大学图书馆(the Warsaw University Library)印刷局(the Office of Prints)成立于1818年,是波兰最古老的公共出版品收藏地,也是1939年之前波兰规模最大的。其馆藏主体是来自斯坦尼斯瓦夫.波尼亚托夫斯基国王(King Stanisław August Poniatowski)以及其继承人的收藏。在二战期间,印刷局损失约60%的收藏品,到目前为止只收回10%。当时,印刷局还被第三帝国征用了一万多件作品以丰富其收藏。此幅《一头躺着的母狮》成为战争时期馆藏艺品损失的象征。

【图6】《忧郁症》(Melancholia I, 1514) ── 杜勒(Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528),铜版画,31 x 26厘米
杜勒的这件作品(在维也纳的Albertin画廊中也有相同的一份)属于卡布伦(Jacob Kabrun)系列,后来成为格但斯克城市博物馆(Urban Museum of Gdańsk)的一部分。它被红军没收了。

【图7】《瞧!这个人!》(Ecce Homo) ── 范戴克(Anton van Dyck, 1599-1641),布面油画,120 x 104厘米,约1620年
在1620年代,20多岁的范戴克曾以《瞧!这个人!》为主题的创作了一些画作。其中,这幅画描绘了审理耶稣案的行省总督彼拉多(Pilate)向围观的犹太群众展示一个头戴荆棘身受鞭刑的基督耶稣。范戴克的画作是华沙雕塑家亚茨科夫斯基(Stanisław Jackowski)的财产,但是他的收藏在战争期间几乎全被毁或洗劫一空。

【图8】《克拉科夫的景色》(A View of Kraków) ── 法瓦特(Julian Fałat, 1853-1929)画,1896年,纸上水彩画,65.5 x 163.5厘米
法瓦特在1895年回到克拉科夫并接管美术学院(School of Fine Arts)之后,他创作了许多从他工作室窗外看到的风景画。他并用油画颜料和水彩颜料,研究其色彩和光线在白天和季节变换时的变化。它原属瓦维尔国家艺术(the State Art Collection in Wawel)收藏品的一部分,在1939年11月9日被德军没收,并运到克拉科夫地区Pałac pod Baranami的德军司令部,它最有可能在1944年末丢失。

【图9】《岩石上的瓦迪斯瓦夫国王》(Łokietek on the Ojcowskie Rocks) ── 格尔森(Wojciech Gerson, 1831-1901),布面油画,230 x 173 厘米,1863年
这是格尔森(Wojciech Gerson)在战争期间被盗的众多画作之一。这幅画描绘波兰第一位统治克拉科夫的国王瓦迪斯瓦夫(King Władysław Łokietek)在克拉科夫-琴斯托霍瓦(Krakowsko-Częstochowska)高地避难时的景象。传说他当时在逃躲捷克国王瓦茨拉夫二世(Vaclav II)的军队追捕时,藏身在一个高地的洞穴中,被一只蜘蛛所拯救。他当时用一个蜘蛛网覆蓋住在洞穴入口,骗开了追捕他的人马。

【图10】《茨瓦尔特的肖像》(A Portrait of Johann Schwarzwaldt) ── 小汉斯霍尔宾(Hans Holbein the Younger, 1497 / 98-1543),羊皮纸上墨水画,直径5厘米,1543年
小汉斯霍尔宾在英格兰定居之后,成为亨利八世(Henry VIII)的皇家画家。这幅小画是他在去世前不久创作的。在1945年以前,它都存放在格但斯克(Gdańsk)的城市博物馆(Urban Museum),后来就被运到苏联。

【图11】《圣母领报》(The Annuciation) ── 乔登斯(Jacob Jordaens; 1593-1678)画,布面油画,153.5 x 116 厘米
乔登斯的《圣母领报》是波兰罗兹(Łódź)的巴托舍维奇市历史暨艺术博物馆(J.K. Bartoszewicz Urban Museum of History and Art)馆藏的一部分。在罗兹被德军占领后,该博物馆被洗劫一空。1945年,仅存的艺品被运往德国的萨克森(Saxony),后来标示有「罗兹」的箱子被红军劫收并运往俄罗斯。

【图12】《年幼的巴克斯带有神话的一幕》(A Mythological Scene with a Young Bacchus) ── 乔登斯(Jacob Jordaens)画,约1640年,布面油画,122 x 87.5 厘米
乔登斯描绘年幼的巴克斯传奇的一幕,周围是酒神和山神。本画作原为
罗兹的巴托舍维奇市历史暨艺术博物馆馆藏,但在战争期间遗失。

(作者:Agnieszka Sural)

(译者:汪水)

(文章来源:新三才编译首发)

分享

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139
前一篇文章新三才精华回顾:孝子与鱼的故事
下一篇文章青少年吸电子烟激增 尼古丁更过量

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Notice: wpdb was called incorrectly. wpdb must set a database connection for use with escaping. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 3.6.0.) in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/functions.php on line 4139

Warning: mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2002): Connection refused in /home/virtual/jm3new/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 1538

留下一个答复

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here