世界史话 波兰在二战期间消失的珍贵艺...

波兰在二战期间消失的珍贵艺术品(续)(组图)

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【新三才编译首发】1939年至1945年期间在波兰领土上被没收,被盗或烧毁的艺术品数十万。目前,波兰文化网culture.pl 优先关注那些仍然有可能找到的艺品。

【图1】《站在马群中的梅切尔斯基夫妇》(A Portrait of Halina and Michał Mycielski Among a Herd of Horses in Gałowo)── 科萨克(Wojciech Kossak, 1857-1942)绘,1926年,布面油画
除了拿破仑战争(the Napoleanic wars)、十一月起义(the November Uprising)、马匹之外,科萨克还画了许多肖像和风景画。1945年在波兰沙莫图维(Szamotuły)消失的这幅《站在马群中的梅切尔斯基夫妇》也是其中之一。图中场景位于距离波兹南(Poznań)35公里的Gałowo,这是波兰于19世纪中期建成第一家糖厂的地方。

【图2】《国王瓦迪斯瓦夫四世的肖像》(Portrait of King Władysław IV) ── 路克斯(Franz Luyckx, 1604-1668)绘
波兰国王瓦迪斯瓦夫四世,身兼瑞典名义上的国王和俄罗斯的沙皇。这幅肖像是一位住在佛兰芒(Flemish)的巴洛克艺术家路克斯所绘制,他在维也纳(Vienna)以绘制皇帝费迪南德三世(Emperor Ferdinand III)的肖像而闻名。这幅画原本在华沙的布吕尔宫(the Brühl Palace)展出。在二战初期,该宫殿被占领当局接管,肖像被移往奥地利(Austria)。从1990年代起,波兰文化和国家遗产部(Ministry of Culture and National Heritage)都在寻找战前的像片,包括这幅瓦迪斯瓦夫四世的肖像。

【图3】《自画像》(Self-portrait) ── 马尔切夫斯基(Jacek Malczewski, 1854-1929)绘
从19世纪至20世纪之交的象征主义(symbolism)经常用骑士、士兵或僧人的服装描绘自己,也会把自己描绘成基督(Christ)、圣方济(St. Francis)、托比亚斯(Tobias)、以西结(Ezekiel)和艺术家的奴隶。但是,这幅位于波兰卡托维兹(Katowice)西里西亚博物馆(Silesian Museum)的马尔切夫斯基《自画像》描绘的是他在一个被大自然包围的花园里。这幅画在不明情况下消失了。

【图4】《一个年轻人的肖像》(Portrait of a Young Man) ── 拉斐尔(Raphael, 或Raffaello SantiRaphael,1483-1520)绘,1514年,油画在木板上,75 x 59厘米
这一幅在二战期间从波兰偷来的拉斐尔的画,成为2013年小说家米洛泽斯基(Zygmunt Miłoszewski)所著《无价》(Bezcenny)中的主角。在书中,由几名艺术家和特工所组成的小组在四处寻找这幅拉斐尔的画。它原本是波兰最古老的博物馆恰尔托雷斯基博物馆(Czartoryski Museum)馆藏之一。该馆由Izabella Czartoryska公主于1801年创立。在1939年9月,被德军劫走许多珍贵的作品,存放在谢尼亚瓦(Sieniawa)附近某个酒窖中。其中,此画先被移到林茨博物馆(Museum of Linz),再被运往瓦维尔堡(Wawel castle),但在德军司令部(the Governor General’s Office)撤离期间,此幅画消失了。

【图5】《牧羊人的报喜》(The Annunciation to the Shepherds) ── 林布兰(Rembrandt van Rijn, 1606-1669)绘,1634年,蚀刻
波兰国立 格淡斯克博物馆(the National Museum in Gdańsk)的这幅林布兰的画被带到苏联。另外,还有3幅林布兰的画出现在波兰:一幅是《好心的撒马利亚人》(Landscape with the Good Samaritan),存放在克拉科夫(Kraków)的恰尔托雷斯基博物馆(Czartoryski Museum);另外两幅保存在华沙皇家城堡(Royal Castle)的是《书桌上的学者》(A Scholar at his Desk)和《画框中的女孩》(A Girl in the Frame of the Painting)。

【图6】《戴安娜和卡利斯托》(Diana and Callisto) ── 鲁本斯(Peter Paul Rubens, 1577-1640)绘,画在木头上的油画,23 x 34.5厘米
《戴安娜和卡利斯托》是来自罗马诗人奥维德(Ovid)的《变形记》(Metamorphoses)中的一个主题。这幅鲁本斯的画曾经属于波兰西部波兹南(Poznań)的科学之友协会(Society of Friends of the Science),用意是维护在普鲁士统治下的波兰文化遗产。此画在1940年从波兹南(Poznań)的凯撒腓德烈博物馆(Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum)中被偷走,下落不明。

【图7】《贩卖护身符》(The Sale of Amulets) ── 希米拉德斯基(Henryk Siemiradzki, 1843-1902)绘,1875年,212 x 166厘米
在1936年左右,华沙糖果商人布罗涅夫斯基(Mieczysław Broniewski)从犹太银行家柯罗伦贝格(Leopold Kronenberg)手中买下这幅希米拉德斯基的画作。描绘一个女孩,看着黑人小贩在卖护身符。这幅画一直挂在莫克图夫街25号(Mokotowska street)糖果宫(Confectioner’s Palace,现址为Adam Mickiewicz Institute)的沙龙墙,一直挂到1944年华沙起义(Warsaw Uprising)爆发时,很可能就被偷走了。

【图8】《卢西纳三联画之一》(a fragment of the Lusina Triptych) ── 斯特沃兹(Wit Stwosz)或其工作室绘,玛利允诺圣泰奥菲勒(Mary returns the pledge to St. Theophile),约1500年
这幅是波兰卢西纳(Lusina)瑞塔布伦神坛(Altar Retabulum)三联画的其中之一。该三联画的中间部分与这幅斯特沃兹所绘的人物直接相连。这幅国家遗产于1940年3月1日被没收。1944年,德军从波兰克拉科夫(Kraków)撤离时,这幅三联画的中间部分很可能遗失了,其余左右两个部分还可以在克拉科夫的国家博物馆看到。

【图9】《拿破仑撤离莫斯科》(The Retreat of Napoleon from Moscow) ── 威勒许-科瓦尔斯基(Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski, 1849-1916)绘,布面油画,80 x 122厘米
这幅波兰画家威勒许-科瓦尔斯基所绘的《拿破仑撤离莫斯科》,是在1944年才成为波兰银行家罗特旺德(Andrzej Rotwand)的私人收藏之一。它在不明的情况下消失了。

【图10】《一名年轻女子的半身像》(The Bust of a Young Woman, 1884/1889) ── 威琪索尔科斯基(Leon Wyczółkowski, 1852-1936)绘,约1884/1889,布面油画,27 x 22厘米
威琪索尔科斯基是所谓的「年轻波兰」(Young Poland)的代表人物之一。这幅《一名年轻女子的半身像》是1900年以来就是美术促进协会(the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts)的收藏之一。于1939年,存放在华沙国家博物馆(National Museum of Warsaw),但在不明的情况下失踪了。

(作者:Agnieszka Sural)

(译者:汪水)

(文章来源:新三才编译首发)

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