国际要闻 柬埔寨版「纽伦堡大审判」:...

柬埔寨版「纽伦堡大审判」:种族灭绝定罪

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柬埔寨金边大屠杀纪念馆

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【新三才编译首发】20世纪最血腥的暴政杀戮之一——红色高棉大屠杀——终于在11月16日迎来关键判决。在金边的「柬埔寨法院特别法庭」(ECCC)世纪审判上,法院判定1970年代柬埔寨共产政权的两名高层:农谢(Nuon Chea)以及乔森潘(Khieu Samphan),因犯下造成至少170万人死亡的「种族灭绝」等多项罪刑,判处无期徒刑。由于这是40年多来,红色高棉大屠杀史上首次被正式认定为「种族灭绝」,因此也被比拟为「柬埔寨版的纽伦堡大审判」。

「红色高棉」的高层——农谢(左)以及乔森潘(右)

92岁的农谢是当时柬埔寨共产党总书记波布(Pol Pot)的副手,87岁的乔森潘当时则担任国家元首,他们因1977年至1979年间的种族灭绝罪和危害人类罪被判无期徒刑。这是红色高棉法庭的一个具有里程碑意义的时刻,这两人已经因危害人类罪而终身监禁。

作为高棉政权的高阶人物,法院宣布,两人都有责任对国家强迫婚姻政策与谋杀、灭绝、奴役、驱逐监禁、酷刑、宗教、种族和政治方面的迫害、强迫失踪和大规模强奸负责。

被法院称为「波布的右手」的农谢被判定犯有对越南人、前高棉共和国官员和穆斯林少数民族占族(Cham)的种族灭绝罪。乔森潘则被判定犯有对越南种族灭绝罪,但没有参与占族的种族灭绝。

Nil Nonn法官宣读的判决书详细叙述了该政权采取的一些最可怕的行动,特别是关注臭名昭著的S-21安全监狱和执行地点,数万人被杀。审讯和处决是在「高层人员,包括农谢」的直接指导下进行的,他们监督S-21两年。

该判决还强调,乔森潘「鼓励,煽动并合法化」导致平民「大规模死亡」的刑事政策,其中包括数百万被迫进入劳改营建造大坝和桥梁以及大规模灭绝越南人。强迫穆斯林吃猪肉,以及佛教僧侣被强行还俗。

大卫·谢弗(David Scheffer)是联合国秘书长协助红色高棉审判的特别专家,也是处理大型战争问题的前美国大使,他将此次的种族灭绝判决描述为「非常重要」。「在柬埔寨,这与第二次世界大战后的纽伦堡判决相当。」谢弗告诉《卫报》。「这值得花钱和努力。」

「这是一个邪恶的政权,这是政府可以做的最糟糕的例子。」检察官考姆健(Nicholas Koumjian)说。 「我认为这个判决非常及时和非常必要。」

然而在农乔二人的象征性判决过后,也有舆论担心这恐怕会是红色高棉的最后审判。此外也有民众认为,相关审判龟速进展,自2006年至今只进行到第三个案子,总开销却已超过3亿美金,加上政府对此多方干预,而对于「审红」抱持负面悲观的态度,浮现「值不值得?」的质疑声浪。对此,联合国教科文组织的防止种族灭绝部门主席辛顿( Alexander Hinton)说:「正义并不完美。但这比不公正更好。难道要走其他路?让大屠杀赦免其罪?」

目前仍有三名红色高棉指挥官仍在等待审判,但ECCC的未来仍然不确定,主要是由于长期反对审判的洪森的抵抗,并说任何更多的案件都有可能使柬埔寨陷入内战。

辛顿承认,洪森政权的政治干涉「玷污了」ECCC。他说:「这些法庭是彻头彻尾的政治,而且这个法庭比大多数都要多。」 「它一直受到腐败指控,政治干预,有时甚至不是强有力的法律的困扰。」

「最终法庭交付可能就只有这三个判决,但我们会持续这个法治的过程。我希望大多数柬埔寨人最终都会接受这个法庭。」他补充说。

(编译:王明真)

(责任编辑:姜启明)

(文章来源:新三才编译首发)

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