环境保护 加州野火频传 森林待有效管...

加州野火频传 森林待有效管理

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【新三才编译首发】根据美国消防专家表示,疏忽和管理不善已使美国西部森林过度拥挤,也更容易受到目前正在肆虐加州的野火影响。

加州和联邦官员对今年已经大约4,500起的火灾做出了回应,这些火灾已经烧毁了近40万英亩的土地,超过去年的纪录。

火灾更大、火灾的持续时间也更长,部分原因是大多数专家认为天气更热、更干燥是由气候变化引起的。但过度拥挤也使火灾更加激烈:美国农业部在2017年12月的一份报告说,自2016年11月以来,全州约有2,700万棵树在联邦、州和私人土地上死亡。

「我们的森林已经太过拥挤。」加州一家独立的监管机构「小胡佛委员会」的克里斯塔·贝克汉(Krystal Beckham)说,他呼吁对该州的森林管理实践进行重大改变。

贝克汉说:「有些地方的树木数量应该是应有的四倍。」「当树木太拥挤靠近时,它们无法获得所需的水分,因此就更容易受到干旱、昆虫和疾病的影响。当它们开始死亡时,就变成了一个可怕的火灾威胁。」

专家说,有两种主要方法可以防止火灾的发生。首先是故意放火烧掉森林地面上的可燃材料,给树木留出更多的呼吸空间。另一种就是人为去除小树以减少干燥森林中的燃料量。

但这些做法都很昂贵。美国目前面临森林管理项目积压的问题,因为联邦和州政府机构使用更多预算来扑灭野火,而不是阻止它们发生。「由于州政府和联邦机构一直在投入越来越多的资源来镇压与解决当前的问题,因此对于如何摆脱火灾问题的战略来说,资源就更少。」美国林业协会首席执行官兼董事约翰·巴奈尔(John Barnell)说道。

加州立法机构在本财政年度为森林管理提供了超过2亿美元,加州消防局(Cal Fire)发言人史考特·麦克连(Scott McLean)表示。

去年 10月份,部分归咎于管理不善的森林,导致北加州40多人死亡,这是该州有史以来最致命的野火事件。「今年火灾非常活跃,他们非常具有侵略性,他们正在杀人,」麦克连说,并指出今年加州有8名平民和4名消防员死于野火。「防火一直非常重要,好消息是过去几年我们变得更加积极。」

(编译:王明真)

(责任编辑:姜启明)

(文章来源:新三才编译首发)

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