环境保护 NASA警告:北极冻土融化...

NASA警告:北极冻土融化对气候更危险

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甲烷的气泡标志着永久冻土融化的湖泊,并迅速将温室气体排放到大气中。

【新三才编译首发】科学家们多年来一直担心,气温上升会释放北极冰冻土壤中的碳,加速气候变化的速度——但美国国家航空航天局(NASA)8月15日在Nature Communications杂志上发表的一篇新论文发现在湖泊下突然解冻更加危险。

「我们不需要等待200或300年来获得这些大量永久冻土碳。」主要研究作者,费尔班克斯阿拉斯加大学的生态学家凯特·沃尔特·安东尼(Katey Walter Anthony)在NASA关于该研究的声明中说。「在我的一生中,以及我孩子的一生中,它会继续增加。它已经发生了,虽然现在并没有以非常快的速度发生,但在几十年内,它就会达到顶峰。」

这项新研究是基于气候变化和永久冻土融化相互作用的测量和模型。具体而言,科学家团队研究了在被称为热融湖水体下的永久冻土融化情况。

新研究背后的团队测量了西伯利亚和阿拉斯加的11个热融湖的72个不同地点的碳排放,以及5个没有湖泊的地点,以计算生产的温室气体量和含碳量的年龄。然后,他们使用这些数据确保他们正在建造正确的的模型。

问题在于当永久冻结的污垢融化时,被困在其中的细菌再次变得活跃,并且会吃掉任何有机物质,产生二氧化碳和甲烷,这两者都是强大的温室气体。当这种情况发生在热融湖水体下时,这个过程甚至更加严峻,因为地表水会加速融化。释放出来的气体由2,000年至43,000年前的碳原子构成,迅速上升到湖中并进入大气层。

「几十年内,你就会得到非常深的解冻洞,几米到几十米的垂直解冻。」安东尼在声明中说。「因此,你正在解冻这些湖泊下的永久冻土。我们很容易测量出来的古老的温室气体。」

此外,该团队还发现,即使在人类试图控制其温室气体产量和减缓气候变化的情况下,这种突然解冻仍然是一个问题。而且,当然,永久冻土越融化,融化的速度就越快——这确实是最严峻的消息。

(编译:王明真)

(责任编辑:姜启明)

(文章来源:新三才编译首发)

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