文化道德 上善若水 人有七善 你...

上善若水 人有七善 你知道多少

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【新三才讯】“水唯能下方成海,山不矜高自及天“。

“上善若水”语出《老子》:“上善若水。水善利万物而不争,处众人之所恶,故几于道。居善地,心善渊,与善仁,言善信,正善治,事善能,动善时。夫唯不争,故无尤。”老子说:“善为士者,不武;善战者,不怒;善胜敌者,不与;善用人者,为之下。是谓不争之德,是谓用人之力”。

一曰“居善地”,人要像水一样善居下位,趋利避害。

是否清醒认识到自我,找到自己合适的人生定位。水乃万物之源,论功勋当得起颂辞千篇、丰碑万座,炫耀的资本不可谓不厚。可它却始终保持一种平常心态,不仅不张扬,反而哪儿低往哪儿流,哪里洼在哪里聚,甚至愈深邃愈安静。此等宁静和达观,是很多人难以企及的境界。

二曰“心善渊”,心境像水一样深沉渊默,中常湛静。

“海纳百川,有容乃大;壁立千仞,无欲则刚”。人一旦能够做到虚怀若谷,便能够汇集百河而成为汪洋;人如能做到无欲无争,便能如峭壁一般,屹立云霄。水最具包容性、渗透力、亲和力,它通达而广济天下,奉献而不图回报。做人应该像水一样,至柔之中又有至刚、至净、能容、能大的胸襟和气度。

三曰“与善仁”,待人像水一样仁爱友善,称物平施。

水,动中有静,静中有动。一切都是因为它柔美、滋润。水因机而动,因动而活,因活而进,故有无限生机。不管置于瓷碗还是置于金碗,均一视同仁,而且器歪水不歪,物斜水不斜,是谓“水准”。倘遇坑蒙拐骗,水便奔腾咆哮,此乃“不平则鸣”。

四曰“言善信”,说话像潮水一样准时有信,声不妄发。

虽然也有浑水、污水、浊水甚至臭水。但污者、臭者非水,水本身是清澈、透明的。它无颜无色、晶莹剔透;它光明磊落、无欲无求、堂堂正正。惟其透明,才能以水为镜,照出善恶美丑。人若修得透明如水、心静如水,善莫大焉。水善养万物,施恩不求报。植物皆沾滋润之恩,动物咸获饮食之惠,此乃仁慈也。水利万物,诚实和顺,无假无妄,表里如一。

五曰“正善治”,从政管理柔和有序,德惟无私。

水的凝聚力极强,一旦融为一体,就荣辱与共,生死相依。朝着共同的方向义无反顾地前进,故李白有“抽刀断水水更流”之慨叹。因其团结一心,水威力无比:汇聚而成江海,浩浩淼淼,荡今涤古;乘风便起波涛,轰轰烈烈,激浊扬清。 做人应该像水一样,要有极大的可塑性。因为水性柔而能变形。在海洋中是海洋之形,在江河中是江河之形。在杯盘中是杯盘之形,在瓶罐中是瓶罐之形。

六曰“事善能”,行事根据能力而为,贵其能力。

水至柔,却柔而有骨,信念执著追求不懈,令人肃然起敬。九曲黄河,多少阻隔、多少诱惑,即使关山层叠、百转千回,最终东流入海。浪击礁盘,纵然粉身碎骨也决不退缩,前赴后继,奋勇搏杀,终将礁岩撞了个百孔千疮。崖头滴水,日复一日,年复一年,咬定目标,不骄不躁,无数次“滴答”,硬是在顽石身上凿出一个窟窿来,真可谓以“天下之至柔,驰骋天下之至坚”。

七曰“动善时”,择机而行不妄动,可行则行。

水不汲汲于富贵,不慽慽于贫贱,水不拘束、不呆板、不僵化、不偏执,有时细腻,有时粗犷。它因时而变,夜结露珠,晨飘雾霭,晴蒸祥瑞,阴披霓裳,夏为雨,冬为雪,化而生气,凝而成冰。它因势而变,舒缓为溪,低吟浅唱;陡峭为瀑,虎啸龙吟;深而为潭,韬光养晦;浩瀚为海,高歌猛进。它因器而变,遇圆则圆,逢方则方,直如刻线,曲可盘龙,故曰“水无常形”。做人像水。

孔子云:水有五德,因它常流不息,能普及一切生物,好像有德;流必向下,不逆成形,或方或长,必循理,好像有义;浩大无尽,好像有道;流几百丈山间而不惧,好像有勇;安放没有高低不 平,好像守法;量见多少,不用削刮,好像正直;无孔不入,好像明察;发源必自西,好像立志;取出取入,万物就此洗涤洁净,又好像善于变化。水有这些好德处,所以君子遇水必观。

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